Ji’Nan Univeristy use Easysensor DGT and HR-Peeper to publish the article as below:
Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) contamination in the aquatic environment have received significant attention recently due to the potential risks they pose. However, there have been few studies about the simultaneous behaviors of As and Sb, resulting in a poor understanding of their occurrence at the sediment-water interface (SWI), especially at the millimeter scale. In this study, soluble and labile concentrations of As and Sb were investigated using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) in Nansi Lake, China, respectively. Results showed mean soluble concentrations of As and Sb were 5.00 μg/L and 2.05 μg/L, respectively. DGT-labile concentrations of As and Sb ranged from 0 to 0.80 μg/L and from 0.50 to 0.67 μg/L, respectively. In the vertical profile, different tends for DGT-labile concentration As and Sb were observed. The reductive dissolution of Fe/Mn (hydr)oxides was considered as a crucial driver for As release and mobility, which was supported by its significant correlation (r = 0.348, p < .05) with Fe. While DGT-labile Sb concentration was negatively correlated with DGT-labile Fe (r = −0.24, p < .05) and Mn (r = −0.324, p < .05), this may be attributed to the absorption of the Sb(III) by the green rusts in sub-oxic and mildly alkaline environments. The significant differences between DGT-labile concentration and community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction were shown using a linear regression relationship, indicating that BCR chemical fractions cannot reflect the mobility of As and Sb in the sediment. Furthermore, the net diffusive fluxes of As and Sb based on DGT-labile concentration were 0.24 and − 0.56 μg∙m−2∙day−1, respectively. There was a potential risk of toxicity to the overlying water from As.