NUIST uses EasySensor DGT and Planar Optode to publish the article as below:
Different fractions and variations of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Fe in sediment via oxic and anaerobic treatments were investigated using BCR sequential extraction methods, DGT technique, and DIFS model. The results indicated that reducible fraction was the considerable pool apart from residual fraction, suggesting the high desorption potential of heavy metals. The high-resolution DGT measurement indicated that CDGT significantly rose after anaerobic condition and characterized by the relative high R value. Significantly increasing positive fluxes varying from 0.64 to 339.4 μg cm−2 s−1 except Ni suggested that apparent diffusion upward occurred over time from the sediment to the overlying water on anaerobic episode. High proportion of reducible Fe fraction and concurrent reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) during anaerobic condition were responsible for the increase of labile metals. The diffusion kinetic parameters including the equilibrium distribution coefficient (Kd), response time (Tc), and rate constant (k1 and k−1) were obtained using DIFS model. These parameters confirmed the partially sustained resupply capacity of heavy metals from solid sediment particle to pore water because of the considerable reducible fractions. Additionally, planar optode (PO) imaging approach demonstrated that low pH accompanied with decreasing dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on anaerobic condition enhanced the release of labile metal fraction. Generally, anoxia facilitated the reduction of reducible fraction of heavy metals and further strengthened the desorption, resupply and diffusion in the aquatic ecosystems.
Writers: Hezhong Yuan, Hongbin Yin, Zhen Yang, Jianghu Yu, Enfeng Liu, Qiang Li, Ziqiu Tai, Yiwei Cai.